Neil Armstrong wore this spacesuit on the Apollo 11 mission to the moon in 1969. National Air and Space Museum NASA isn’t the only space agency trying to land on the… NASA’s epic Apollo 11 mission to land humans on the moon launched on July 16, 1969. In preparation for the 50th anniversary celebrations, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC, went to work to conserve and preserve Neil Armstrong’s iconic Apollo 11 spacesuit. And it looks great.The museum unveiled the post-conservation spacesuit on Twitter on Wednesday. It will go back on display on July 16 for the first time in 13 years. Sci-Tech 23 Photos Forgotten Apollo moon artifacts found in Neil Armstrong’s closet Elon Musk gets behind goofy Neil Armstrong alien meme Our conservation of Neil Armstrong’s #Apollo11 spacesuit is complete, and we are excited to finally release brand new photography of the suit. It will go back on display for the first time in over a decade on July 16, the 50th anniversary of the launch of Apollo 11. #Apollo50 pic.twitter.com/2uRQzWbmbX— National Air and Space Museum (@airandspace) May 1, 2019 NASA’s wildest rides: Extreme vehicles for Earth and beyond Share your voice 6:56 Post a comment The journey to protect the moon-worn spacesuit dates back years. The Smithsonian launched a Kickstarter project in 2015 to raise the funds necessary for the work. Click here for To The Moon, a CNET multipart series examining our relationship with the moon from the first landing of Apollo 11 to future human settlement on its surface. Robert Rodriguez/CNET The campaign pulled in over $700,000 (£530,000, AU$990,000) to pay for stabilizing the fragile suit, which required delicate fabric repair, stain removal, cleaning and preservation of fading materials and degraded plastic parts. The crowdfunding money also helped pay for a mannequin to wear the suit and a state-of-the-art climate-controlled display case. The suit will go on temporary display near the 1903 Wright Flyer before being moved to a permanent home in 2022 for a exhibition called Destination Moon.Armstrong’s suit kept him safe when he stepped foot on the moon. All these decades later, the Smithsonian was able to repay the favor and protect the spacesuit for posterity back here on Earth. Now playing: Watch this: To the Moon 0 NASA Space This story is part of To the Moon, a series exploring humanity’s first journey to the lunar surface and our future living and working on the moon. Tags Neil Armstrong happenings
Aniruddha RoyBusinessman and honorary consul of Belarus Aniruddha Roy, who returned home on Saturday after 81 days of his disappearance, emailed a letter to the media on Sunday stating that he still feels insecure.Signed in his name and written on a pad of his RMM business group, the letter, however, does not say anything about his whereabouts during these 81 days.“I, Aniruddha Roy, managing director of RMM group, am a victim of business vengeance. My business partner Mohiuddin Ahmed Mahin Gong tried his best to grip my three companies: RMM Leather Industries Ltd, RMM Knitting Clothing Ltd, RMM Sweater that comprise assets of more than 1.5 billion taka. On 27 August, after returning from a meeting at Union Bank at Gulshan-1, at about 4 pm, I was abducted. I suspect I fell prey to business vengeance,” read the letter.Claiming the accused tried to harm him in as many ways as possible he continues, “i) My organisation LIB had been denied shipment certificate unethically by the BFLLFEA (Bangladesh Finished Leather, Leather Goods and Footwear Exporters Association). ii) The company’s 50 million earned taka was subjugated through a personal account. iii) The workers of the company were threatened. iv) Documents were transferred from my office without my permission. I did not succumb to their pressure to hand over all my assets. By the grace of God, I could return on 17 November.”Aniruddha Roy has appealed to Sheikh Hasina for justice and security.Earlier Aniruddha was abducted from Gulshan on 27 August, by 7 or 8 persons introducing themselves as detectives. Several persons witnessed the scene including his driver.Aniruddha Roy is the honorary consul of Belarus and a seven-time honoured CIP (commercially important person) by Bangladesh government.
Injured Shahin Bepari on a wheelchair. Photo: UNBAnother US-Bangla plane crash victim died at Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) on Monday afternoon, taking the death toll from the accident to 50.Shahin Bepari, who was undergoing treatment at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of DMCH burn and plastic surgery unit with 32 per cent burn injuries, breathed his last around 4:45pm, said the unit’s coordinator Samanta Lal Sen, reports UNB.On 18 March, Shahin Bepari was brought back to Bangladesh from Nepal by a flight of Biman Bangladesh Airlines and admitted to the DMCH.Earlier, at least 49 people, including 26 Bangladeshis, were killed as an aircraft of US-Bangla Airlines from Dhaka to Kathmandu crashed at Tribhuvan International Airport in the capital of Himalayan country Nepal on 12 March.With the death of Shahin, the number of Bangladeshi nationals killed in the accident rose to 27.Meanwhile, five more Bangladeshi survivors-Mehedi Hasan, Saiyada Kamrunnahar Shwarna, Almun Nahar Annie, Sheikh Rashed Rubayet and Shahreen Ahmed-are now undergoing treatment at the DMCH.
Finance minister Abul Maal Abdul Muhith on Thursday proposed to provide buses for schools in DhakaFinance minister Abul Maal Abdul Muhith on Thursday proposed to provide buses for schools in Dhaka.He told the parliament, students using their family cars contribute to the traffic jam in the capital. “Most of the schools in Dhaka do not provide buses.”He expressed hope that the dedicated bus service would promote safer and easier commute as in developing countries.Muhith added, “Concession or exemption of duties will be considered on importation of school buses”.
Conventionally, the switching mechanism was thought to operate in equilibrium, where the switch changes between clockwise and counterclockwise motor rotations in a balanced way. An earlier experiment showed that the time interval a flagllear motor spends in a given state (either clockwise or counterclockwise) follows a peaked distribution. Based on Tu’s work, this peaked interval time distribution indicates that the switch operates out of equilibrium. In order to achieve this fast and accurate switching, the switch must be extremely sensitive to the CheY-P concentration. In the non-equilibrium model, Tu shows that this high sensitivity can be explained by the presence of two Maxwell’s demons, which act as the switch’s sensors for the CheY-P. “The easiest way to explain the work of these two Maxwell’s demons is that they are two coincidence counters,” he said. “Each switch can have up to 34 CheY-P regulators bind to it. One of the demons will count the number of bound CheY-P, and if the number is greater than some threshold, say 22, it will switch the motor from CCW to CW; another demon works the opposite way with a low threshold, say 12. If the number of CheY-P bound is less than 12, this demon will switch the motor from CW to CCW.”These “demons” consume energy to do their work, in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. The more energy the demons use, the more sensitive the switch is. Tu determined the exact amount of energy used per switch cycle, and discovered that it is roughly equal to the work done by one or two protons moving through the membrane near the flagellar motor. Based on this finding, he predicts that the switch may be powered by protons passing through the membrane. This possibility would agree with earlier observations that the average switching frequency depends on the proton flux.As Tu explains, viewing the flagellar motor switch in the framework of a non-equilibrium model could help scientists understand the switching mechanism as an integrated part of the motor system. In biology, many systems operate out of equilibrium, and Tu’s model could help scientists detect interesting non-equilibrium effects. Besides the flagellar motor, he predicts that a similar non-equilibrium mechanism, driven by Maxwell’s demons, could be responsible for a variety of other cellular processes.More information: Tu, Yuhai. “The nonequilibrium mechanism for ultrasensitivity in a biological switch: Sensing by Maxwell’s demons.” PNAS, August 19, 2008, vol. 105, no. 33, 11737-11741.Copyright 2008 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. (PhysOrg.com) — According to the second law of thermodynamics, entropy always increases. For example, two bodies of different temperatures, when brought into contact, will eventually mix together to result in a uniform temperature. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. But, as the physicist James Clerk Maxwell famously suggested in 1871, what would happen if a theoretical demon could stand at a doorway between the two bodies, and only allow high-temperature particles to pass through one way, and only low-temperature particles to pass through the other? The tiny doorman would prevent the two temperatures from mixing, and theoretically prevent entropy. Of course, the demon would use energy to do this job, thus creating entropy itself, and so the second law would not be violated.While Maxwell’s demon was originally considered a thought experiment, similar mechanisms have been discovered for various applications. One example is a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube, which is a pneumatic device that separates hot and cold air by spinning hot and cold molecules in different directions.Now, a recent study shows that a similar mechanism may drive a motor switch in the bacteria Escherichia coli, and may be responsible for many other signaling systems in biology. Researcher Yuhai Tu at IBM’s T.J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York, explains how E. coli’s Maxwell’s demons work in a recent issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.“There are two related contributions made in this paper,” Tu told PhysOrg.com. “First, a general non-equilibrium mechanism for making a highly sensitive switch (i.e., how Maxwell’s demons can be used to increase sensitivity). Second, a general result on dwell-time statistics (how long a system should stay in a given state before it switches to other states). This result can be used as a diagnostic tool to detect the existence of these demons (or non-equilibrium effects) in an unknown system.”The bacterium contains flagellar motors that drive its motion. A flagellar motor has a switch (a shift gear) whose job is to sense the concentration of a regulator called CheY-P, and then control the rotational direction of the motor to be either clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise (CCW), accordingly. “The purpose of the CW and CCW switch is to control the motion of the cell,” Tu said. “The CheY-P level is the signal (red/yellow/green light) which affects the switch (stop/slow/move). In a very loose sense, CCW results in movement and CW results in switching direction. The bacterium cell needs to control these two types of motions to navigate towards (away from) favorable (toxic) environments.” Video games are a ‘great equalizer’ for people with disabilities Citation: Maxwell’s demons may drive some biological systems (2008, September 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-09-maxwell-demons-biological.html Explore further